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History of transportation | technology

History of transportation | technology | Britannica

technology

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contribution to

regional and national systems

  • Austria
    • Austria

      In Austria: The Age of Metternich, 1815–48

      …of an Austrian infrastructure of railroads and water transport. The first railroad on the European Continent appeared between Linz (Austria) and Budweis (now Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic); it was a horse-drawn railway between the Danube and the Moldau (Vltava) rivers, which in fact was a connection between the Danube and…

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  • Pacific Ocean
    • The Pacific Ocean, with depth contours and submarine features.

      In Pacific Ocean: Trade and transportation

      …in the size of its transportation infrastructure. Japan, South Korea, China, and the Philippines rank high in ship ownership, and Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are among the world’s major shipbuilding countries. In addition to the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, the other major ports in the eastern…

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  • Song dynasty China
    • Political map of China rendered in Pinyin

      In China: Song culture

      Transportation facilities improved, allowing production away from the sources of supplies and making products available to distant regions. The state maintained highways, with staffed stations, for official travel and a courier service network, the latter being an index of centralized government control. Along the highways…

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  • 20th-century Latin America
    • Latin America.

      In history of Latin America: Population and social change

      Additions to transportation infrastructure also contributed to greater integration of isolated population clusters. The most essential rail lines had already taken shape by 1910, but the coming of automotive transport led to a major upgrading and extension of highways, and the airplane introduced an entirely new mode…

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technological development

  • Drawing of an Egyptian seagoing ship, c. 2600 bce based on vessels depicted in the bas-relief discovered in the pyramid of King Sahure at Abū Ṣīr, Cairo.

    In history of technology: Transport

    Transport, again, followed earlier precedents, the sailing ship emerging as a seagoing vessel with a carvel-built hull (that is, with planks meeting edge-to-edge rather than overlapping as in clinker-built designs), and a fully developed keel with stempost and sternpost. The Greek sailing ship was…

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  • automation
    • Jacquard loom, engraving, 1874At the top of the machine is a stack of punched cards that would be fed into the loom to control the weaving pattern. This method of automatically issuing machine instructions was employed by computers well into the 20th century.

      In automation: Transportation

      Automation has been applied in various ways in the transportation industries. Applications include airline reservation systems, automatic pilots in aircraft and locomotives, and urban mass-transit systems. The airlines use computerized reservation systems to continuously monitor the status of all flights. With these systems, ticket…

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  • civil engineering
    • Civil engineering

      In civil engineering: Transportation

      Roman roads and bridges were products of military engineering, but the pavements of McAdam and the bridges of Perronet were the work of the civil engineer. So were the canals of the 18th century and the railways of the 19th, which, by providing bulk transport…

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  • specialization of labour
    • mass production: assembly line

      In mass production: Nonmanufacturing examples of mass production

      …service industries, such as air transportation, the division and specialization of skills can be observed among ticket agents, pilots, navigators, baggage handlers, flight attendants, maintenance crews, and traffic controllers. All major engineering projects in both design and manufacture generally require a complement of engineering specialties including chemical, mechanical, and electrical…

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